This is the debt I pay Just for one riotous day, Years of regret and grief. Sorrow without relief. Pay it I will to the end-- Until the grave, my friend, Gives me a true release-- Gives me the clasp of peace. Slight was the thing I ... Read more of The Debt at Martin Luther King.caInformational Site Network Informational
   Home - Articles - Books


Brillat-Savarin, when pronouncing his famous maxim, "Tell me what you eat
and I will tell you what you are," certainly never suspected the signal
confirmation which the entomological world would bestow upon his saying.
Our gastrosopher was speaking only of the culinary caprices of man rendered
fastidious by the sweets of life; but he might, in a more serious
department of thought, have given his formula a wider and more general
bearing and applied it to the dishes which vary so greatly according to
latitude, climate and customs; he might above all have taken into his
reckoning the harsh realities suffered by the common people, when perhaps
his ideal of moral worth would have been found in a platter of chick-peas
oftener than in a pot of pate de foie gras. No matter: his aphorism, the
mere whimsical sally of an epicure, becomes an imperious truth if we forget
the luxury of the table and look into what is eaten by the little world
which swarms around us.

To each its mess. The cabbage Pieris consumes the pungent leaves of the
Cruciferae as the food of her infancy; the Silkworm disdains any foliage
other than that of the mulberry-tree. The Spurge Hawk-moth requires the
caustic milk-sap of the tithymals: the Corn-weevil the grain of wheat; the
Pea-weevil, the seeds of the Leguminosae; the Balaninus (A genus of Beetles
including the Acorn-weevil, the Nut-weevil and others.--Translator's Note.)
the hazel-nut, the chestnut, the acorn; the Brachycera (A division of Flies
including the Gad-flies and Robber-flies.--Translator's Note.) the clove of
garlic. Each has its diet, each its plant; and each plant has its customary
guests. Their relations are so precise that in many cases one might
determine the insect by the vegetable which supports it, or the vegetable
by the insect.

If you know the lily, you may name as a Crioceris the tiny scarlet
Scarabaeid that inhabits it and peoples its leaves with larvae which keep
themselves cool beneath an overcoat of ordure. (For the Lily-beetle, or
Crioceris merdigera, cf. "The Glow-worm and Other Beetles," by J. Henri
Fabre, translated by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos: chapters 16 and 17.--
Translator's Note.) If you know the Crioceris, you may name as a lily the
plant which she devastates. It will not perhaps be the common or white
lily, but some other representative of the same family--Turk's cap lily,
orange lily, scarlet Martagon, lancifoliate lily, tiger-spotted lily,
golden lily--hailing from the Alps or the Pyrenees, or brought from China
or Japan. Relying on the Crioceris, who is an expert judge of exotic as
well as of native Liliaceae, you may name as a lily the plant with which
you are unacquainted and trust the word of this singular botanical master.
Whether the flower be red, yellow, ruddy-brown or sown with crimson spots,
characteristics so unlike the immaculate whiteness of the familiar flower,
do not hesitate, adopt the name dictated by the Beetle. Where man is liable
to mistake the insect is never mistaken.

This insect botany, a cause of such grievous tribulations, has always
impressed the worker in the fields, who for all that, is a very indifferent
observer. The man who was the first to see his cabbage-plot devastated by
caterpillars made the acquaintance of the Pieris. Science completed the
process, in its desire to serve a useful purpose or merely to seek truth
for truth's sake; and to-day the relations between the insect and the plant
form a collection of records as important from the philosophical as from
the practical, agricultural point of view. What is much less familiar to
us, because it touches us less nearly, is the zoology of the insect, that
is to say, the selection which it makes, to feed its larva, of this or that
animal species, to the exclusion of others. The subject is so vast that a
volume were not sufficient to exhaust it; besides, data are lacking in the
vast majority of cases. It is reserved for a still very distant future to
raise this point of biology to the level already reached by the question of
vegetable diet. It will be enough if I contribute a few observations
scattered through my writings or my notes.

What does the Wasp addicted to a predatory life eat, of course in the
larval state? Now, to begin with, we see natural sections which adopt as
their prey different species of one and the same order, in one and the same
group. Thus the Ammophilae hunt exclusively the larvae of the night-flying
Moths. This taste is shared by the Eumenes, a very different genus. (Cf.
"The Mason-wasps" by J. Henri Fabre, translated by Alexander Teixeira de
Mattos: chapter 1.--Translator's Note.) The Spheges and Tachytes are
addicted to Orthoptera; the Cerceres, apart from a few exceptions, are
faithful to the Weevil; both the Philanthi and the Palari capture only
Hymenoptera; the Pompili specialize in hunting the Spider; the Astata
revels in the flavour of Bugs; the Bembeces want Flies and nothing else;
the Scoliae enjoy the monopoly of the Lamellicorn-grubs; the Pelopaei
favour the young Epeirae (Or Garden Spiders. Cf. "The Life of the Spider":
chapters 9 to 14 and appendix.--Translator's Note.), the Stizi vary in
opinion: of the two in my neighbourhood, one, S. ruficornis, fills her
larder with Mantes and the other, S. tridentatus, fills it with Cicadellae
(Cf. "The Life of the Grasshopper": chapter 20.--Translator's Note.);
lastly, the Crabronidae (Any Flies akin to the House-fly.--Translator's
Note.). levy tribute upon the rabble of the Muscidae. (Hornets.--
Translator's Note.)

Already you see what a magnificent classification of these game-hunters
might be made with a faithfully listed bill of fare. Natural groups stand
out, characterized merely by the identity of their victuals. I trust that
the methodical science of the future will take account of these gastronomic
laws, to the great relief of the entomological novice, who is too often
hampered by the snares of the mouth-parts, the antennae and the nervures of
the wings. I call for a classification in which the insect's aptitudes, its
diet, its industry and its habits shall take precedence of the shape of a
joint in its antennae. It will come; but when?

If from generalities we descend to details, we shall see that the very
species may, in many instances, be determined from the nature of its
victuals. The number of burrows of Philanthus apivorus which I have
inspected since I have been rummaging the hot roadside embankments, to
enquire into their population, would seem hyperbolical were I able to state
the figures. (For the Bee-eating Philanthus cf. Chapter 10 of the present
volume.--Translator's Note.) They must amount, it seems to me, to
thousands. Well, in this multitude of food-stores, whether recent or
ancient, uncovered for a purpose or encountered by chance, I have not once,
not as often as once, discovered other remains than those of the Hive-bee:
the imperishable wings, still connected in pairs, the cranium and thorax
enveloped in a violet shroud, the winding-sheet which time throws over
these relics. To-day as when I was a beginner, ever so long ago; in the
north as in the south of the country which I explored; in mountainous
regions as on the plains, the Philanthus follows an unvarying diet: she
must have the Hive-bee, always the Bee and never any other, however closely
various other kinds of game resemble the Bee in quality. If, therefore,
when exploring sunny banks, you find beneath the soil a small parcel of
mutilated Bees, that will be enough to point to the existence of a local
colony of Philanthus apivorus. She alone knows the recipe for making potted
Bee-meat. The Crioceris was but now teaching us all about the lily family;
and here the mildewed body of the Bee tells us of the Philanthus and her

Similarly the female Ephippiger helps us to identify the Languedocian
Sphex: her relics, the cymbals and the long sabre, are the unmistakable
sign of the cocoon to which they adhere. The black Cricket, with his red-
braided thighs, is the infallible label of the Yellow-winged Sphex; the
larva of Oryctes nasicornis tells us of the Garden Scolia as certainly as
the best description; the Cetonia-grub proclaims the Two-banded Scolia and
the larva of the Anoxia announces the Interrupted Scolia.

After these exclusive ones, who disdain to vary their meals, let us mention
the eclectics, who, in a group which is generally well-defined, are able to
select among different kinds of game appropriate to their bulk. The Great
Cerceris (Cerceris tuberculata. Cf. "The Hunting Wasps": chapters 2 and 3.-
-Translator's Note.) favours above all Cleonus ophthalmicus, one of the
largest of our Weevils; but at need she accepts the other Cleoni, as well
as the kindred genera, provided that the capture be of an imposing size.
Cerceris arenaria (Cf. idem: chapter 1.--Translator's Note.) extends her
hunting-grounds farther afield: any Weevil of average dimensions is to her
a welcome capture. The Buprestis-hunting Cerceris adopts all the Buprestes
indiscriminately, so long as they are not beyond her strength. The Crowned
Philanthus (P. coronatus, FAB.) fills her underground warehouses with
Halicti chosen among the biggest. (Cf. "Bramble-bees and Others" by J.
Henri Fabre, translated by Alexander Teixeira de Mattos: chapters 12 to
14.--Translator's Note.) Much smaller than her kinswoman, Philanthus
raptor, LEP., stores away Halicti chosen among the less large species. Any
adult Acridian approaching an inch in length suits the White-banded Sphex.
The various tidae of the neighbourhood are admitted to the larder of Stizus
ruficornis and of the Mantis-hunting Tachytes on the sole condition of
being young and tender. The largest of our Bembeces (B. rostrata, FAB., and
B. bidentata, VAN DER LIND (For the Rostrate Bembex and the Two-pronged
Bembex, cf. "The Hunting Wasps": chapter 14.--Translator's Note.)) are
eager consumers of Gad-flies. With these chief dishes they associate
relishes levied indifferently from the rest of the Fly clan. The Sandy
Ammophila (A. sabulosa, VAN DER LIND (Cf. idem: chapter 13.--Translator's
Note.)) and the Hairy Ammophila (A. hirsuta, KIRB.) cram into each burrow a
single but corpulent caterpillar, always of the Moth tribe and varying
greatly in coloration, which denotes distinct species. The Silky Ammophila
(A. holosericea, VAN DER LIND. (Cf. idem: chapter 14.--Translator's Note.))
has a better assorted diet. She requires for each banqueter three or four
items, which include the Measuring-worms, or Loopers, and the caterpillars
of ordinary Moths, all of which are equally appreciated. The Brown-winged
Solenius (S. fascipennis, LEP.), who elects to dwell in the soft dead wood
of old willow-trees, has a marked preference for Virgil's Bee, Eristalis
tenax (Actually the Common Drone-fly and somewhat resembling a Bee in
appearance. Cf. "The Hunting Wasps": chapter 14.--Translator's Note.),
willingly adding, sometimes as a side-dish, sometimes as the principal
game, Helophilus pendulus, whose costume is very different. On the faith of
indistinguishable remains, we must no doubt enter a number of other Flies
in her game-book. The Golden-mouthed Hornet (Crabro chrysostomus, LEP.)
another burrower in old willow-trees, prefers the Syrphi, without
distinction of species. (The Syrphi, like the Eristales, resemble Bees
through having the abdomen transversely banded with yellow.--Translator's
Note.) The Wandering Solenius (S. vagus, LEP. (For this Fly-hunting insect
cf. "Bramble-bees and Others": chapters 1 and 3.--Translator's Note.)), an
inmate of the dry bramble-stems and of the dwarf-elder, lays under
contribution for her larder the genera Syritta, Sphaerophoria, Sarcophaga,
Syrphus, Melanophora, Paragus and apparently many others. The species which
recurs most frequently in my notes is Syritta pipiens.

Without pursuing this tedious list any farther, we plainly perceive the
general result. Each huntress has her characteristic tastes, so much so
that, when we know the bill of fare, we can tell the genus and very often
the species of the guest, thus proving the proud truth of the maxim, "Tell
me what you eat and I will tell you what you are."

There are some which always need the same prey. The offspring of the
Languedocian Sphex religiously consume the Ephippiger, that family dish so
dear to their ancestors and no less dear to their descendants; no
innovation in the ancient usages can tempt them. Others are better suited
by variety, for reasons connected with flavour or with facility of supply;
but then the selection of the game is kept within fixed limits. A natural
group, a genus, a family, more rarely almost a whole order: this is the
hunting-ground beyond which poaching is strictly forbidden. The law is
absolute; and one and all scrupulously refrain from transgressing it.

In the place of the Praying Mantis, offer the Mantis-hunting Tachytes an
equivalent in the shape of a Locust. She will scorn the morsel, though it
would seem to be of excellent flavour, seeing that Panzer's Tachytes
prefers it to any other form of game. Offer her a young Empusa, who differs
so widely from the Mantis in shape and colour: she will accept without
hesitation and operate before your eyes. Despite its fantastic appearance,
the Devilkin is instantly recognized by the Tachytes as a Mantid and
therefore as game falling within her scope.

In exchange for her Cleonus, give to the Great Cerceris a Buprestis, the
delight of one of her near kinsfolk. She will have nothing to say to the
sumptuous dish. Accept that! She, a Weevil-eater! Never in this world!
Present her with a Cleonus of a different species, or any other large
Weevil, of a sort which she has most probably never seen before, since it
does not figure on the inventory of the provisions in her burrows. This
time there is no show of disdain: the victim is seized and stabbed in the
regulation manner and forthwith stored away.

Try to persuade the Hairy Ammophila that Spiders have a nutty flavour, as
Lalande asserts; and you will see how coldly your hints are received.
(Joseph Jerome Le Francois de Lalande (1732-1807), the astronomer. Even
after he had achieved his reputation, he sought means, outside the domain
of science, to make himself talked about and found these in the display
partly of odd tastes, such as that for eating Spiders and caterpillars, and
partly of atheistical opinions.--Translator's Note.) Try merely to convince
her that the caterpillar of a Butterfly is as good to eat as the
caterpillar of a Moth. You will not succeed. But, if you substitute for her
underground larva, which I suppose to be grey, another underground larva
striped with black, yellow, rusty-red or any other tint, this change of
coloration will not prevent her from recognizing, in the substituted dish,
a victim to her liking, an equivalent of her Grey Worm.

So with the rest, so far as I have been able to experiment with them. Each
obstinately refuses what is alien to her hunting-preserves, each accepts
whatever belongs to them, always provided that the game substituted is much
the same in size and development as that whereof the owner has been
deprived. Thus the Tarsal Tachytes, an appreciative epicure of tender
flesh, would not consent to replace her pinch of young Acridian-grubs with
the one big Locust that forms the food of Panzer's Tachytes; and the
latter, in her turn, would never exchange her adult Acridian for the
other's menu of small fry. The genus and the species are the same, but the
age differs; and this is enough to decide the question of acceptance or

When its depredations cover a somewhat extensive group, how does the insect
manage to recognize the genera, the species composing her allotted portion
and to distinguish them from the rest with an assured vision which the
inventory of her burrows proves never to be at fault? Is it the general
appearance that guides her? No, for in some Bembex-burrows we shall find
Sphaerophoriae, those slender, thong-like creatures, and Bombylii, looking
like velvet pincushions; no again, for in the pits of the Silky Ammophila
we shall see, side by side, the caterpillar of the ordinary shape and the
Measuring-worm, a living pair of compasses which progresses by alternately
opening out and closing; no, once more, for in the storerooms of Stizus
ruficornis and the Mantis-hunting Tachytes we see stacked beside the Mantis
the Empusa, her unrecognizable caricature.

Is it the colouring? Not at all. There is no lack of instances. What a
variety of hues and metallic reflections, distributed in a host of
different fashions, appear in the Buprestes that are hunted by the Cerceris
celebrated by Leon Dufour. (Jean Marie Leon Dufour (1780-1865) was an army
surgeon who served with distinction in several campaigns and subsequently
practised as a doctor in the Landes. He attained great eminence as a
naturalist. Cf. "The Hunting Wasps": chapter 1; also "The Life of the
Spider": chapter 1.--Translator's Note.) A painter's palette, containing
crushed gold, bronze, ruby and amethyst, would find it difficult to rival
these sumptuous colours. Nevertheless the Cerceris makes no mistake: all
this nation of insects, so indifferently attired, represents to her, as to
the entomologist, the nation of the Buprestes. The inventory of the
Hornet's larder will include Diptera clad in grey or russet frieze; others
are girdled with yellow, flecked with white, adorned with crimson lines;
others are steel-blue, ebony black, or coppery green; and underneath this
variety of dissimilar costumes we find the invariable Fly.

Let us take a concrete example. Ferrero's Cerceris (C. Ferreri, VAN DER
LIND) consumes Weevils. Her burrows are usually lined with Phynotomi and
Sitones both an indeterminate grey, and Otiorhynchi, black or tan-coloured.
Now I have sometimes happened to unearth from her cells a collection of
veritable jewels which, thanks to their bright metallic lustre, made a most
striking contrast with the sombre Otiorhynchus. These were the Rhynchites
(R. betuleti), who roll the vine-leaves into cigars. Equally magnificent,
some of them were azure blue, others copper gilt, for the cigar-roller has
a twofold colouring. How did the Cerceris manage to recognize in these
jewels the Weevil, the near relative of the vulgar Phynotomus? Any such
encounters probably found her lacking in expert knowledge; her race cannot
have handed down to her other than very indeterminate propensities, for she
does not appear to make frequent use of the Rhynchites, as is proved by my
infrequent discovery of them amid the mass of my numerous excavations. For
the first time, perhaps, passing through a vineyard, she saw the rich
Beetle gleaming on a leaf; it was not for her a dish in current
consumption, consecrated by the ancient usages of the family. It was
something novel, exceptional, extraordinary. Well, this extraordinary
creature is recognized with certainty as a Weevil and stored away as such.
The glittering cuirass of the Rhynchites goes to take its place beside the
grey cloak of the Phynotomus. No, it is not the colour that guides the

Neither is it the shape. Cerceris arenaria hunts any medium-sized Weevil. I
should be putting the reader's patience to too great a test if I attempted
to give in this place a complete inventory of the specimens identified in
her larder. I will mention only two, which my latest searches around my
village have revealed. The Wasp goes hunting on the holm-oaks of the
neighbouring hills the Pubescent Brachyderes (B. pubescens) and the Acorn-
weevil (Balaninus glandium). What have these two Beetles in common as
regards shape? I mean by shape not the structural details which the
classifier examines through his magnifying-glass, not the delicate features
which a Latreille would quote when drawing up a technical description, but
the general picture, the general outline that impresses itself upon the
vision even of an untrained eye and makes the man who knows nothing of
science and above all the child, a most perspicacious observer, connect
certain animals together.

In this respect, what have the Brachyderes and the Balaninus in common in
the eyes of the townsman, the peasant, the child or the Cerceris?
Absolutely nothing. The first has an almost cylindrical figure; the second,
squat, short and thickset, is conical in front and elliptical, or rather
shaped like the ace of hearts, behind. The first is black, strewn with
cloudy, mouse-grey spots; the second is yellow ochre. The head of the first
ends in a sort of snout; the head of the second tapers into a curved beak,
slender as a horse-hair and as long as the rest of the body. The
Brachyderes has a massive proboscis, cut off short; the Balaninus seems to
be smoking an insanely long cigarette-holder.

Who would think of connecting two creatures so unlike, of calling them by
the same name? Outside the professional classifiers, no one would dare to.
The Cerceris, more perspicacious, knows each of them for a Weevil, a quarry
with a concentrated nervous system, lending itself to the surgical feat of
her single stroke of the lancet. After obtaining an abundant booty at the
cost of the blunt-mouthed insect, with which she sometimes stuffs her
cellars to the exclusion of any other fare, according to the hazards of the
chase, she now suddenly sees before her the creature with the extravagant
proboscis. Accustomed to the first, will she fail to know the second? By no
means: at the first glance she recognizes it as her own; and the cell
already furnished with a few Brachyderes receives its complement of
Balanini. If these two species are to seek, if the burrows are far from the
holm-oaks, the Cerceris will attack Weevils displaying the greatest variety
of genus, species, form and coloration, levying tribute indifferently on
Sitones, Cneorhini, Geonemi, Otiorhynchi, Strophosomi and many others.

In vain do I rack my brains merely to guess at the signs upon which the
huntress relies as a guide, without going outside one and the same group,
in the midst of such a variety of game; above all by what characteristics
she recognizes as a Weevil the strange Acorn Balaninus, the only one among
her victims that wears a long pipe-stem. I leave to evolutionism, atavism
and other transcendental "isms" the honour and also the risk of explaining
what I humbly recognize as being too far beyond my grasp. Because the son
of the bird-catcher who imitates the call of his victims has been fed on
roast Robins, Linnets and Chaffinches, shall we hastily conclude that this
education through the stomach will enable him later, without other
initiation than that of the spit, to know his way about the ornithological
groups and to avoid confusing them when his turn comes to set his limed
twigs? Will the digesting of a ragout of little birds, however often
repeated by him or his ascendants, suffice to make him a finished bird-
catcher? The Cerceris has eaten Weevil; her ancestors have all eaten
Weevil, religiously. If you see in this the reason that makes the Wasp a
Weevil-expert endowed with a perspicacity unrivalled save by that of a
professional entomologist, why should you refuse to admit that the same
consequences would follow in the bird-catcher's family?

I hasten to abandon these insoluble problems in order to attack the
question of provisions from another point of view. Every Hunting Wasp is
confined to a certain genus of game, which is usually strictly limited. She
pursues her appointed quarry and regards anything outside it with suspicion
and distaste. The tricks of the experimenter, who drags her prey from under
her and flings her another in exchange, the emotions of the possessor
deprived of her property and immediately recovering it, but under another
form, are powerless to put her on the wrong scent. Obstinately she refuses
whatever is alien to her portion; instantly she accepts whatever forms part
of it. Whence arises this insuperable repugnance for provisions to which
the family is unaccustomed? Here we may appeal to experiment. Let us do so:
its dictum is the only one that can be trusted.

The first idea that presents itself and the only one, I think, that can
present itself is that the larva, the carnivorous nurseling, has its
preferences, or we had better say its exclusive tastes. This kind of game
suits it; that does not; and the mother provides it with food in conformity
with its appetites, which are unchangeable in each species. Here the family
dish is the Gad-fly; elsewhere it is the Weevil; elsewhere again it is the
Cricket, the Locust and the Praying Mantis. Good in themselves, in a
general way, these several victuals may be noxious to a consumer who is not
used to them. The larva which dotes on Locust may find caterpillar a
detestable fare; and that which revels in caterpillar may hold Locust in
horror. It would be hard for us to discover in what manner Cricket-flesh
and Ephippiger-flesh differ as juicy, nourishing foodstuffs; but it does
not follow that the two Sphex-wasps addicted to this diet have not very
decided opinions on the matter, or that each of them is not filled with the
highest esteem for its traditional dish and a profound dislike for the
other. There is no discussing tastes.

Moreover, the question of health may well be involved. There is nothing to
tell us that the Spider, that treat for the Pompilus, is not poison, or at
least unwholesome food, to the Bembex, the lover of Gad-flies; that the
Ammophila's succulent caterpillar is not repugnant to the stomach of the
Sphex fed upon the dry Acridian. The mother's esteem for one kind of game
and her distrust of another would in that case be due to the likes and
dislikes of her larvae; the victualler would regulate the bill of fare by
the gastronomic demands of the victualled.

This exclusiveness of the carnivorous larva seems all the more probable
inasmuch as the larva reared on vegetable food refuses in any way to lend
itself to a change of diet. However pressed by hunger, the caterpillar of
the Spurge Hawk-moth, which browses on the tithymals, will allow itself to
starve in front of a cabbage leaf which makes a peerless meal for the
Pieris. Its stomach, burned by pungent spices, will find the Crucifera
insipid and uneatable, though its piquancy is enhanced by essence of
sulphur. The Pieris, on its part, takes good care not to touch the
tithymals: they would endanger its life. The caterpillar of the Death's-
head Hawk-moth requires the solanaceous narcotics, principally the potato,
and will have nothing else. All that is not seasoned with solanin it
abhors. And it is not only larvae whose food is strongly spiced with
alkaloids and other poisonous substances that refuse any innovation in
their food; the others, even those whose diet is least juicy, are
invincibly uncompromising. Each has its plant or its group of plants,
beyond which nothing is acceptable.

I remember a late frost which had nipped the buds of the mulberry-trees
during the night, just when the first leaves were out. Next day there was
great excitement among my neighbours: the Silk-worms had hatched and the
food had suddenly failed. The farmers had to wait for the sun to repair the
disaster; but how were they to keep the famishing new-born grubs alive for
a few days? They knew me for an expert in plants; by collecting them as I
walked through the fields I had earned the name of a medical herbalist.
With poppy-flowers I prepared an elixir which cleared the sight; with
borage I obtained a syrup which was a sovran remedy for whooping-cough; I
distilled camomile; I extracted the essential oil from the wintergreen. In
short, botany had won for me the reputation of a quack doctor. After all,
that was something.

The housewives came in search of me from every point of the compass and
with tears in their eyes explained the situation. What could they give
their Silk-worms while waiting for the mulberry to sprout afresh? It was a
serious matter, well worthy of commiseration. One was counting on her batch
to buy a length of cloth for her daughter, who was on the point of getting
married; another told me of her plans for a Pig to be fattened against the
coming winter; all deplored the handful of crown-pieces which, hoarded in
the hiding-place in the cupboard, would have afforded help in difficult
times. And, full of their troubles, they unfolded, before my eyes, a scrap
of flannel on which the vermin were swarming:

"Regardas, moussu! Venoun d'espeli; et ren per lour douna! Ah, pecaire!"
"Look, sir! The frost has come and we've nothing to give them! Oh, what a

Poor people! What a harsh trade is yours: respectable above all others, but
of all the most uncertain! You work yourselves to death; and, when you have
almost reached your goal, a few hours of a cold night, which comes upon you
suddenly, destroys your harvest. To help these afflicted ones seemed to me
a very difficult thing. I tried, however, taking botany as my guide; it
suggested to me, as substitutes for the mulberry, the members of closely-
related families: the elm, the nettle-tree, the nettle, the pellitory.
Their nascent leaves, chopped small, were offered to the Silk-worms. Other
and far less logical attempts were made, in accordance with the inspiration
of the individuals. Nothing came of them. To the last specimen, the new-
born Silk-worms died of hunger. My renown as a quack must have suffered
somewhat from this check. Was it really my fault? No, it was the fault of
the Silk-worm, which remained faithful to its mulberry leaf.

It was therefore in nearly the certainty of non-fulfilment that I made my
first attempts at rearing carnivorous larvae with a quarry which did not
conform with the customary regimen. For conscience' sake, more or less
perfunctorily, I endeavoured to achieve something that seemed to me bound
to end in pitiful failure. Only the Bembex-wasps, which are plentiful in
the sand of the neighbouring hills, might still afford me, without too
prolonged a search, a few subjects on which to experiment. The Tarsal
Bembex furnished me with what I wanted: larvae young enough to have still
before them a long period of feeding and yet sufficiently developed to
endure the trials of a removal.

These larva are exhumed with all the consideration which their delicate
skin demands; a number of head of game are likewise unearthed intact,
having been recently brought by the mother. They consist of various
Diptera, including some Anthrax-flies. (Cf. "The Life of the Fly": chapters
2 and 4.--Translator's Note.) An old sardine-box, containing a layer of
sifted sand and divided into compartments by paper partitions, receives my
charges, who are isolated one from another. These Fly-eaters I propose to
turn into Grasshopper-eaters; for their Bembex-diet I intend to substitute
the diet of a Sphex or a Tachytes. To save myself tedious errands devoted
to provisioning the refectory, I accept what good fortune offers me at the
very threshold of my door. A green Locustid, with a short sabre bent into a
reaping-hook, Phaneroptera falcata, is ravaging the corollae of my
petunias. Now is the time to indemnify myself for the damage which she has
caused me. I pick her young, half to three-quarters of an inch in length;
and I deprive her of movement, without more ado, by crushing her head. In
this condition she is served up to the Bembex-larvae in place of their

If the reader has shared my convictions of failure, convictions based on
very logical motives, he will now share my profound surprise. The
impossible becomes possible, the senseless becomes reasonable and the
expected becomes the opposite of the real. The dish served on the Bembeces'
table for the first time since Bembeces came into the world is accepted
without any repugnance and consumed with every mark of satisfaction. I will
here set down the detailed diary of one of my guests; that of the others
would only be a repetition, save for a few variations.

2 AUGUST, 1883.--The larva of the Bembex, as I extract it from its burrow,
is about half-developed. Around it I find only some scanty relics of its
meals, consisting chiefly of Anthrax-wings, half-diaphanous and half-
clouded. The mother would appear to have completed the victualling by fresh
contributions, added day by day. I give the nurseling, which is an Anthrax-
eater, a young Phaneroptera. The Locustid is attacked without hesitation.
This profound change in the character of its victuals does not seem in the
least to disturb the larva, which bites straight into the rich morsel with
its mandibles and does not let go until it has exhausted it. Towards
evening the drained carcase is replaced by another, quite fresh, of the
same species but bulkier, measuring over three-quarters of an inch.

3 AUGUST.--Next day I find the Phaneroptera devoured. Nothing remains but
the dry integuments, which are not dismembered. The entire contents have
disappeared; the game has been emptied through a large opening made in the
belly. A regular Grasshopper-eater could not have operated more skilfully.
I replace the worthless carcase by two small Locustidae. At first the larva
does not touch them, being amply sated with the copious meal of the day
before. In the afternoon, however, one of the items is resolutely attacked.

4 AUGUST.--I renew the victuals, although those of the day before are not
finished. For the rest, I do the same daily, so that my charge may
constantly have fresh food at hand. High game might upset its stomach. My
Locustidae are not victims at the same time living and inert, operated upon
according to the delicate method of the insects that paralyse their prey;
they are corpses, procured by a brutal crushing of the head. With the
temperature now prevailing, flesh soon becomes tainted; and this compels me
frequently to renew the provisions in my sardine-box refectory. Two
specimens are served up. One is attacked soon afterwards; and the larva
clings to it assiduously.

5 AUGUST.--The ravenous appetite of the start is becoming assuaged. My
supplies may well be too generous; and it might be prudent to try a little
dieting after this Gargantuan good cheer. The mother certainly is more
parsimonious. If all the family were to eat at the same rate as my guest,
she would never be able to keep pace with their demands. Therefore, for
reasons of health, this is a day of fasting and vigil.

6 AUGUST.--Supplies are renewed with two Phaneropterae. One is consumed
entirely; the other is bitten into.

7 August.--To-day's ration is tasted and then abandoned. The larva seems
uneasy. With its pointed mouth it explores the walls of its chamber. This
sign denotes the approach of the time for making the cocoon.

8 AUGUST.--During the night the larva has spun its silken eel-trap. It is
now encrusting it with grains of sand. Then follow, in due time, the normal
phases of the metamorphosis. Fed on Locustidae, a diet unknown to its race,
the larva passes through its several stages without any more difficulty
than its brothers and sisters fed on Flies.

I obtained the same success in offering young Mantes for food. One of the
larvae thus served would even incline me to believe that it preferred the
new dish to the traditional diet of its race. Two Eristales, or Drone-
flies, and a Praying Mantis an inch long composed its daily allowance. The
Drone-flies are disdained from the first mouthful; and the Mantis, already
tasted and apparently found excellent, causes the Fly to be completely
forgotten. Is this an epicure's preference, due to the greater juiciness of
the flesh? I am not in a position to say. At all events, the Bembex is not
so infatuated with Fly as to refuse to abandon it for other game.

The failure which I foresaw has proved a magnificent success. It is fairly
convincing, is it not? Without the evidence of experiment, what can we rely
upon? Beneath the ruins of so many theories which appeared to be most
solidly erected I should hesitate to admit that two and two make four if
the facts were not before me. My argument had the most tempting probability
on its side, but it had not the truth. As it is always possible to find
reasons after the event in support of an opinion which one would not at
first admit, I should now argue as follows:

The plant is the great factory in which are elaborated, with mineral
materials, the organic principles which are the materials of life. Certain
products are common to the whole vegetable series, but others, far less
numerous, are prepared in special laboratories. Each genus, each species
has its trade-mark. Here essential oils are manufactured; here alkaloids;
here starches, fatty substances, resins, sugars, acids. Hence result
special energies, which do not suit every herbivorous animal. It assuredly
requires a stomach made expressly for the purpose to digest aconite,
colchicum, hemlock or henbane; those who have not such a stomach could
never endure a diet of that sort. Besides, the Mithridates fed on poison
resist only a single toxin. (Mithridates VI. King of Pontus (d. B.C. 63) is
said to have secured immunity from poison by taking increased doses of it.-
-Translator's Note.) The caterpillar of the Death's-head Hawk-moth, which
delights in the solanin of the potato, would be killed by the acrid
principle of the tithymals that form the food of the Spurge-caterpillar.
The herbivorous larvae are therefore perforce exclusive in their tastes,
because different genera of vegetables possess very different properties.

With this variety in the products of the plant, the animal, a consumer far
more than a producer, contrasts the uniformity in its own products. The
albumen in the egg of the Ostrich or the Chaffinch, the casein in the milk
of the Cow or the Ass, the muscular flesh of the Wolf or the Sheep, the
Screech-owl or the Field-mouse, the Frog or the Earth-worm: these remain
albumen, casein or fibrin, edible if not eaten. Here are no excruciating
condiments, no special acridities, no alkaloids fatal to any stomach other
than that of the appointed consumer; so that animal food is not confined to
one and the same eater. What does not man eat, from that delicacy of the
arctic regions, soup made of Seal's blood and a scrap of Whale-blubber
wrapped in a willow-leaf for a vegetable, to the Chinaman's fried Silk-worm
or the Arab's dried Locust? What would he not eat, if he had not to
overcome the repugnance dictated by habit rather than by actual necessity?
The prey being uniform in its nutritive principles, the carnivorous larva
ought to accommodate itself to any sort of game, above all if the new dish
be not too great a departure from consecrated usage. Thus should I argue,
with no less probability on my side, had I to begin all over again. But, as
all our arguments have not the value of a single fact, I should be forced
in the end to resort to experiment.

I did so the next year, on a larger scale and with a greater variety of
subjects. I shrink from a continuous narrative of my experiments and of my
personal education in this new art, where the failure of one day taught me
the way to succeed on the morrow. It would be long and tedious. Enough if I
briefly state my results and the conditions which must be fulfilled in
order to run the delicate refectory as it should be run.

And, first, we must not dream of detaching the egg from its natural prey to
lay it on another. The egg adheres pretty firmly, by its cephalic pole, to
the quarry. To remove it from its place would inevitably jeopardize its
future. I therefore let the larva hatch and acquire sufficient strength to
bear the removal without peril. For that matter, my excavations most often
provide me with my subjects in the form of larvae. I adopt for rearing-
purposes the larvae that are a quarter to a half developed. The others are
too young and risky to handle, or too old and limited to a short period of
artificial feeding.

Secondly, I avoid bulky heads of game, a single one of which would suffice
for the whole growing-stage. I have already said and I here repeat how nice
a matter it is to consume a victim which has to keep fresh for a couple of
weeks and not to finish dying until it is almost entirely devoured. Death
here leaves no corpse; when life is extinct, the body has disappeared,
leaving only a shred of skin. Larvae with only one large prey have a
special art of eating, a dangerous art, in which a clumsy bite would prove
fatal. If bitten before the proper time at such a point, the victim becomes
putrid, which promptly causes death by poisoning in the consumer. When
diverted from its plan of attack, deprived of its clue, the larva is not
always able to rediscover the lawful morsels in good time and is killed by
the decomposition of its badly dissected prey. What will happen if the
experimenter gives it a game to which it is not accustomed? Not knowing how
to eat it according to rule, the larva will kill it; and by next day the
victuals will have become so much toxic putrescence. I have already told
how I found it impossible to rear the Two-banded Scolia on Oryctes-larvae,
fastened down to deprive them of movement, or even on Ephippigers,
paralysed by the Languedocian Sphex. In both cases the new diet was
accepted without hesitation, a proof that it suited the nurseling; but in a
day or two putrescence supervened and the Scolia perished on the fetid
morsel. The method of preserving the Ephippiger, so well known to the
Sphex, was unknown to my boarder; in this was enough to convert a delicious
food into poison.

Even so did my other attempts miscarry wretchedly, attempts at feeding with
the single dish consisting of one big head of game to replace the normal
ration. Only one success is recorded in my notebooks, but that was so
difficult that I would not undertake to obtain it a second time. I
succeeded in feeding the larva of the Hairy Ammophila with an adult black
Cricket, who was accepted as readily as the natural game, the caterpillar.

To avoid putrefaction of victuals which last overlong and are not consumed
according to the method indispensable to their preservation, I employ small
game, each piece of which can be finished by the larva at a single sitting,
or at most in a single day. It matters little then that the victim is
slashed and dismembered at random; decomposition has no time to seize upon
its still quivering tissues. This is the procedure of those larvae which
gulp down their food, snapping at random without distinguishing one part
from another, such as the Bembex-larvae, which finish the Fly into which
they have bitten before beginning another in the heap, or the Cerceris-
larvae, which drain their Weevils methodically one after another. With the
first strokes of the mandibles the victim broached may be mortally wounded.
This is no disadvantage: a brief spell suffices to make use of the corpse,
which is saved from putrefaction by being promptly consumed. Close beside
it, the other victims, quite alive though motionless, await their
respective turns and supply reserves of victuals which are always fresh.

I am too unskilful a butcher to imitate the Wasp and myself to resort to
paralysis; moreover, the caustic liquid injected into the nerve-centres,
ammonia in particular, would leave traces of smell or flavour which might
put off my boarders. I am therefore compelled to deprive my insects of the
power of movement by killing them outright. This makes it impracticable to
provide a sufficiency of provisions beforehand in a single supply: while
one item of the ration was being consumed the rest would spoil. One
expedient alone remains to me, one which entails constant attendance: it is
to renew the provisions each day. When all these conditions are fulfilled,
the success of artificial feeding is still not without its difficulties;
nevertheless, with a little care and above all plenty of patience, it is
almost certain.

It was thus that I reared the Tarsal Bembex, which eats Anthrax-flies and
other Diptera, on young Locustidae or Mantidae; the Silky Ammophila, whose
diet consists chiefly of Measuring-worms, on small Spiders; the pot-making
Pelopaeus, a Spider-eater, on tender Acridians; the Sand Cerceris, a
passionate lover of Weevils, on Halicti; the Bee-eating Philanthus, which
feeds exclusively on Hive-bees, on Eristales and other Flies. Without
succeeding in my final aim, for reasons which I have just explained, I have
seen the Two-banded Scolia feasting greedily on the grub of the Oryctes,
which was substituted for that of the Cetonia, and putting up with an
Ephippiger taken from the burrow of the Sphex; I have been present at the
repast of three Hairy Ammophilae accepting with an excellent appetite the
Cricket that replaced their caterpillar. One of them, as I have related,
contrived to keep its ration fresh, which enabled it to reach its full
development and to spin its cocoon.

These examples, the only ones to which my experiments have extended
hitherto, seem to me sufficiently convincing to allow me to conclude that
the carnivorous larva does not have exclusive tastes. The ration supplied
to it by the mother, so monotonous, so limited in quality, might be
replaced by others equally to its taste. Variety does not displease the
larva; it does it as much good as uniformity; indeed, it would be of
greater benefit to the race, as we shall see presently.



Add to Add to Reddit Add to Digg Add to Add to Google Add to Twitter Add to Stumble Upon
Add to Informational Site Network