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The Banded Epeira




BUILDING THE WEB.

The fowling-snare is one of man's ingenious villainies. With lines,
pegs and poles, two large, earth-coloured nets are stretched upon the
ground, one to the right, the other to the left of a bare surface. A
long cord, pulled at the right moment by the fowler, who hides in a
brushwood hut, works them and brings them together suddenly, like a
pair of shutters.

Divided between the two nets are the cages of the decoy-birds--Linnets
and Chaffinches, Greenfinches and Yellowhammers, Buntings and
Ortolans--sharp-eared creatures which, on perceiving the distant
passage of a flock of their own kind, forthwith utter a short calling
note. One of them, the Sambe, an irresistible tempter, hops about and
flaps his wings in apparent freedom. A bit of twine fastens him to his
convict's stake. When, worn with fatigue and driven desperate by his
vain attempts to get away, the sufferer lies down flat and refuses to
do his duty, the fowler is able to stimulate him without stirring from
his hut. A long string sets in motion a little lever working on a
pivot. Raised from the ground by this diabolical contrivance, the bird
flies, falls down and flies up again at each jerk of the cord.

The fowler waits, in the mild sunlight of the autumn morning. Suddenly,
great excitement in the cages. The Chaffinches chirp their rallying
cry:

"Pinck! Pinck!"

There is something happening in the sky. The Sambe, quick! They are
coming, the simpletons; they swoop down upon the treacherous floor.
With a rapid movement, the man in ambush pulls his string. The nets
close and the whole flock is caught.

Man has wild beast's blood in his veins. The fowler hastens to the
slaughter. With his thumb he stifles the beating of the captives'
hearts, staves in their skulls. The little birds, so many piteous heads
of game, will go to market, strung in dozens on a wire passed through
their nostrils.

For scoundrelly ingenuity, the Epeira's net can bear comparison with
the fowler's; it even surpasses it when, on patient study, the main
features of its supreme perfection stand revealed. What refinement of
art for a mess of Flies! Nowhere, in the whole animal kingdom, has the
need to eat inspired a more cunning industry. If the reader will
meditate upon the description that follows, he will certainly share my
admiration.

In bearing and colouring, Epeira fasciata is the handsomest of the
Spiders of the South. On her fat belly, a mighty silk-warehouse nearly
as large as a hazel-nut, are alternate yellow, black and silver sashes,
to which she owes her epithet of Banded. Around that portly abdomen the
eight long legs, with their dark- and pale-brown rings, radiate like
spokes.

Any small prey suits her; and, as long as she can find supports for her
web, she settles wherever the Locust hops, wherever the Fly hovers,
wherever the Dragon-fly dances or the Butterfly flits. As a rule,
because of the greater abundance of game, she spreads her toils across
some brooklet, from bank to bank among the rushes. She also stretches
them, but not so assiduously, in the thickets of evergreen oak, on the
slopes with the scrubby greenswards, dear to the Grasshoppers.

Her hunting-weapon is a large upright web, whose outer boundary, which
varies according to the disposition of the ground, is fastened to the
neighbouring branches by a number of moorings. Let us see, first of
all, how the ropes which form the framework of the building are
obtained.

All day invisible, crouching amid the cypress-leaves, the Spider, at
about eight o'clock in the evening, solemnly emerges from her retreat
and makes for the top of a branch. In this exalted position she sits
for sometime laying her plans with due regard to the locality; she
consults the weather, ascertains if the night will be fine. Then,
suddenly, with her eight legs widespread, she lets herself drop
straight down, hanging to the line that issues from her spinnerets.
Just as the rope-maker obtains the even output of his hemp by walking
backwards, so does the Epeira obtain the discharge of hers by falling.
It is extracted by the weight of her body.

The descent, however, has not the brute speed which the force of
gravity would give it, if uncontrolled. It is governed by the action of
the spinnerets, which contract or expand their pores, or close them
entirely, at the faller's pleasure. And so, with gentle moderation, she
pays out this living plumb-line, of which my lantern clearly shows me
the plumb, but not always the line. The great squab seems at such times
to be sprawling in space, without the least support.

She comes to an abrupt stop two inches from the ground; the silk-reel
ceases working. The Spider turns round, clutches the line which she has
just obtained and climbs up by this road, still spinning. But, this
time, as she is no longer assisted by the force of gravity, the thread
is extracted in another manner. The two hind-legs, with a quick
alternate action, draw it from the wallet and let it go.

On returning to her starting-point, at a height of six feet or more,
the Spider is now in possession of a double line, bent into a loop and
floating loosely in a current of air. She fixes her end where it suits
her and waits until the other end, wafted by the wind, has fastened its
loop to the adjacent twigs.

Feeling her thread fixed, the Epeira runs along it repeatedly, from end
to end, adding a fibre to it on each journey. Whether I help or not,
this forms the "suspension cable," the main piece of the framework. I
call it a cable, in spite of its extreme thinness, because of its
structure. It looks as though it were single, but, at the two ends, it
is seen to divide and spread, tuft-wise, into numerous constituent
parts, which are the product of as many crossings. These diverging
fibres, with their several contact-points, increase the steadiness of
the two extremities.

The suspension-cable is incomparably stronger than the rest of the work
and lasts for an indefinite time. The web is generally shattered after
the night's hunting and is nearly always rewoven on the following
evening. After the removal of the wreckage, it is made all over again,
on the same site, cleared of everything except the cable from which the
new network is to hang.

Once the cable is laid, in this way or in that, the Spider is in
possession of a base that allows her to approach or withdraw from the
leafy piers at will. From the height of the cable she lets herself slip
to a slight depth, varying the points of her fall. In this way she
obtains, to right and left, a few slanting cross-bars, connecting the
cable with the branches.

These cross-bars, in their turn, support others in ever changing
directions. When there are enough of them, the Epeira need no longer
resort to falls in order to extract her threads; she goes from one cord
to the next, always wire-drawing with her hind-legs. This results in a
combination of straight lines owning no order, save that they are kept
in one nearly perpendicular plane. Thus is marked out a very irregular
polygonal area, wherein the web, itself a work of magnificent
regularity, shall presently be woven.

In the lower part of the web, starting from the centre, a wide opaque
ribbon descends zigzag-wise across the radii. This is the Epeira's
trade-mark, the flourish of an artist initialling his creation. "Fecit
So-and-so," she seems to say, when giving the last throw of the shuttle
to her handiwork.

That the Spider feels satisfied when, after passing and repassing from
spoke to spoke, she finishes her spiral, is beyond a doubt: the work
achieved ensures her food for a few days to come. But, in this
particular case, the vanity of the spinstress has naught to say to the
matter: the strong silk zigzag is added to impart greater firmness to
the web.

THE LIME-SNARE.

The spiral network of the Epeirae possesses contrivances of fearsome
cunning. The thread that forms it is seen with the naked eye to differ
from that of the framework and the spokes. It glitters in the sun,
looks as though it were knotted and gives the impression of a chaplet
of atoms. To examine it through the lens on the web itself is scarcely
feasible, because of the shaking of the fabric, which trembles at the
least breath. By passing a sheet of glass under the web and lifting it,
I take away a few pieces of thread to study, pieces that remain fixed
to the glass in parallel lines. Lens and microscope can now play their
part.

The sight is perfectly astounding. Those threads, on the borderland
between the visible and the invisible, are very closely twisted twine,
similar to the gold cord of our officers' sword-knots. Moreover, they
are hollow. The infinitely slender is a tube, a channel full of a
viscous moisture resembling a strong solution of gum arabic. I can see
a diaphanous trail of this moisture trickling through the broken ends.
Under the pressure of the thin glass slide that covers them on the
stage of the microscope, the twists lengthen out, become crinkled
ribbons, traversed from end to end, through the middle, by a dark
streak, which is the empty container.

The fluid contents must ooze slowly through the side of those tubular
threads, rolled into twisted strings, and thus render the network
sticky. It is sticky, in fact, and in such a way as to provoke
surprise. I bring a fine straw flat down upon three or four rungs of a
sector. However gentle the contact, adhesion is at once established.
When I lift the straw, the threads come with it and stretch to twice or
three times their length, like a thread of india-rubber. At last, when
over-taut, they loosen without breaking and resume their original form.
They lengthen by unrolling their twist, they shorten by rolling it
again; lastly, they become adhesive by taking the glaze of the gummy
moisture wherewith they are filled.

In short, the spiral thread is a capillary tube finer than any that our
physics will ever know. It is rolled into a twist so as to possess an
elasticity that allows it, without breaking, to yield to the tugs of
the captured prey; it holds a supply of sticky matter in reserve in its
tube, so as to renew the adhesive properties of the surface by
incessant exudation, as they become impaired by exposure to the air. It
is simply marvellous.

The Epeira hunts not with springs, but with lime-snares. And such
lime-snares! Everything is caught in them, down to the dandelion-plume
that barely brushes against them. Nevertheless, the Epeira, who is in
constant touch with her web, is not caught in them. Why? Because the
Spider has contrived for herself, in the middle of her trap, a floor in
whose construction the sticky spiral thread plays no part. There is
here, covering a space which, in the larger webs, is about equal to the
palm of one's hand, a neutral fabric in which the exploring straw finds
no adhesiveness anywhere.

Here, on this central resting-floor, and here only, the Epeira takes
her stand, waiting whole days for the arrival of the game. However
close, however prolonged her contact with this portion of the web, she
runs no risk of sticking to it, because the gummy coating is lacking,
as is the twisted and tubular structure, throughout the length of the
spokes and throughout the extent of the auxiliary spiral. These pieces,
together with the rest of the framework, are made of plain, straight,
solid thread.

But when a victim is caught, sometimes right at the edge of the web,
the Spider has to rush up quickly, to bind it and overcome its attempts
to free itself. She is walking then upon her network; and I do not find
that she suffers the least inconvenience. The lime-threads are not even
lifted by the movements of her legs.

In my boyhood, when a troop of us would go, on Thursdays (The weekly
half-day in French schools.--Translator's Note.), to try and catch a
Goldfinch in the hemp-fields, we used, before covering the twigs with
glue, to grease our fingers with a few drops of oil, lest we should get
them caught in the sticky matter. Does the Epeira know the secret of
fatty substances? Let us try.

I rub my exploring straw with slightly oiled paper. When applied to the
spiral thread of the web, it now no longer sticks to it. The principle
is discovered. I pull out the leg of a live Epeira. Brought just as it
is into contact with the lime-threads, it does not stick to them any
more than to the neutral cords, whether spokes or part of the
framework. We were entitled to expect this, judging by the Spider's
general immunity.

But here is something that wholly alters the result. I put the leg to
soak for a quarter of an hour in disulphide of carbon, the best solvent
of fatty matters. I wash it carefully with a brush dipped in the same
fluid. When this washing is finished, the leg sticks to the
snaring-thread quite easily and adheres to it just as well as anything
else would, the unoiled straw, for instance.

Did I guess aright when I judged that it was a fatty substance that
preserved the Epeira from the snares of her sticky Catherine-wheel? The
action of the carbon-disulphide seems to say yes. Besides, there is no
reason why a substance of this kind, which plays so frequent a part in
animal economy, should not coat the Spider very slightly by the mere
act of perspiration. We used to rub our fingers with a little oil
before handling the twigs in which the Goldfinch was to be caught; even
so the Epeira varnishes herself with a special sweat, to operate on any
part of her web without fear of the lime-threads.

However, an unduly protracted stay on the sticky threads would have its
drawbacks. In the long run, continual contact with those threads might
produce a certain adhesion and inconvenience to the Spider, who must
preserve all her agility in order to rush upon the prey before it can
release itself. For this reason, gummy threads are never used in
building the post of interminable waiting.

It is only on her resting-floor that the Epeira sits, motionless and
with her eight legs outspread, ready to mark the least quiver in the
net. It is here, again, that she takes her meals, often long-drawn out,
when the joint is a substantial one; it is hither that, after trussing
and nibbling it, she drags her prey at the end of a thread, to consume
it at her ease on a non-viscous mat. As a hunting-post and refectory,
the Epeira has contrived a central space, free from glue.

As for the glue itself, it is hardly possible to study its chemical
properties, because the quantity is so slight. The microscope shows it
trickling from the broken threads in the form of a transparent and more
or less granular streak. The following experiment will tell us more
about it.

With a sheet of glass passed across the web, I gather a series of
lime-threads which remain fixed in parallel lines. I cover this sheet
with a bell-jar standing in a depth of water. Soon, in this atmosphere
saturated with humidity, the threads become enveloped in a watery
sheath, which gradually increases and begins to flow. The twisted shape
has by this time disappeared; and the channel of the thread reveals a
chaplet of translucent orbs, that is to say, a series of extremely fine
drops.

In twenty-four hours the threads have lost their contents and are
reduced to almost invisible streaks. If I then lay a drop of water on
the glass, I get a sticky solution similar to that which a particle of
gum arabic might yield. The conclusion is evident: the Epeira's glue is
a substance that absorbs moisture freely. In an atmosphere with a high
degree of humidity, it becomes saturated and percolates by sweating
through the side of the tubular threads.

These data explain certain facts relating to the work of the net. The
Epeirae weave at very early hours, long before dawn. Should the air
turn misty, they sometimes leave that part of the task unfinished: they
build the general framework, they lay the spokes, they even draw the
auxiliary spiral, for all these parts are unaffected by excess of
moisture; but they are very careful not to work at the lime-threads,
which, if soaked by the fog, would dissolve into sticky shreds and lose
their efficacy by being wetted. The net that was started will be
finished to-morrow, if the atmosphere be favourable.

While the highly-absorbent character of the snaring-thread has its
drawbacks, it also has compensating advantages. The Epeirae, when
hunting by day, affect those hot places, exposed to the fierce rays of
the sun, wherein the Crickets delight. In the torrid heats of the
dog-days, therefore, the lime-threads, but for special provisions,
would be liable to dry up, to shrivel into stiff and lifeless
filaments. But the very opposite happens. At the most scorching times
of the day they continue supple, elastic and more and more adhesive.

How is this brought about? By their very powers of absorption. The
moisture of which the air is never deprived penetrates them slowly; it
dilutes the thick contents of their tubes to the requisite degree and
causes it to ooze through, as and when the earlier stickiness
decreases. What bird-catcher could vie with the Garden Spider in the
art of laying lime-snares? And all this industry and cunning for the
capture of a Moth!

I should like an anatomist endowed with better implements than mine and
with less tired eyesight to explain to us the work of the marvellous
rope-yard. How is the silken matter moulded into a capillary tube? How
is this tube filled with glue and tightly twisted? And how does this
same mill also turn out plain threads, wrought first into a framework
and then into muslin and satin? What a number of products to come from
that curious factory, a Spider's belly! I behold the results, but fail
to understand the working of the machine. I leave the problem to the
masters of the microtome and the scalpel.

THE HUNT.

The Epeirae are monuments of patience in their lime-snare. With her
head down and her eight legs widespread, the Spider occupies the centre
of the web, the receiving-point of the information sent along the
spokes. If anywhere, behind or before, a vibration occur, the sign of a
capture, the Epeira knows about it, even without the aid of sight. She
hastens up at once.

Until then, not a movement: one would think that the animal was
hypnotized by her watching. At most, on the appearance of anything
suspicious, she begins shaking her nest. This is her way of inspiring
the intruder with awe. If I myself wish to provoke the singular alarm,
I have but to tease the Epeira with a bit of straw. You cannot have a
swing without an impulse of some sort. The terror-stricken Spider, who
wishes to strike terror into others, has hit upon something much
better. With nothing to push her, she swings with the floor of ropes.
There is no effort, no visible exertion. Not a single part of the
animal moves; and yet everything trembles. Violent shaking proceeds
from apparent inertia. Rest causes commotion.

When calm is restored, she resumes her attitude, ceaselessly pondering
the harsh problem of life:

"Shall I dine to-day, or not?"

Certain privileged beings, exempt from those anxieties, have food in
abundance and need not struggle to obtain it. Such is the Gentle, who
swims blissfully in the broth of the putrefying Adder. Others--and, by
a strange irony of fate, these are generally the most gifted--only
manage to eat by dint of craft and patience.

You are of their company, O my industrious Epeirae! So that you may
dine, you spend your treasures of patience nightly; and often without
result. I sympathize with your woes, for I, who am as concerned as you
about my daily bread, I also doggedly spread my net, the net for
catching ideas, a more elusive and less substantial prize than the
Moth. Let us not lose heart. The best part of life is not in the
present, still less in the past; it lies in the future, the domain of
hope. Let us wait.

All day long, the sky, of a uniform grey, has appeared to be brewing a
storm. In spite of the threatened downpour, my neighbour, who is a
shrewd weather-prophet, has come out of the cypress-tree and begun to
renew her web at the regular hour. Her forecast is correct: it will be
a fine night. See, the steaming-pan of the clouds splits open; and,
through the apertures, the moon peeps, inquisitively. I too, lantern in
hand, am peeping. A gust of wind from the north clears the realms on
high; the sky becomes magnificent; perfect calm reigns below. The Moths
begin their nightly rounds. Good! One is caught, a mighty fine one. The
Spider will dine to-day.

What happens next, in an uncertain light, does not lend itself to
accurate observation. It is better to turn to those Garden Spiders who
never leave their web and who hunt mainly in the daytime. The Banded
and the Silky Epeira, both of whom live on the rosemaries in the
enclosure, shall show us in broad daylight the innermost details of the
tragedy.

I myself place on the lime-snare a victim of my selecting. Its six legs
are caught without more ado. If the insect raises one of its tarsi and
pulls towards itself, the treacherous thread follows, unwinds slightly
and, without letting go or breaking, yields to the captive's desperate
jerks. Any limb released only tangles the others still more and is
speedily recaptured by the sticky matter. There is no means of escape,
except by smashing the trap with a sudden effort whereof even powerful
insects are not always capable.

Warned by the shaking of the net, the Epeira hastens up; she turns
round about the quarry; she inspects it at a distance, so as to
ascertain the extent of the danger before attacking. The strength of
the snareling will decide the plan of campaign. Let us first suppose
the usual case, that of an average head of game, a Moth or Fly of some
sort. Facing her prisoner, the Spider contracts her abdomen slightly
and touches the insect for a moment with the end of her spinnerets;
then, with her front tarsi, she sets her victim spinning. The Squirrel,
in the moving cylinder of his cage, does not display a more graceful or
nimbler dexterity. A cross-bar of the sticky spiral serves as an axis
for the tiny machine, which turns, turns swiftly, like a spit. It is a
treat to the eyes to see it revolve.

What is the object of this circular motion? It is this: the brief
contact of the spinnerets has given a starting-point for a thread,
which the Spider must now draw from her silk warehouse and gradually
roll around the captive, so as to swathe him in a winding-sheet which
will overpower any effort made. It is the exact process employed in our
wire-mills: a motor-driven spool revolves and, by its action, draws the
wire through the narrow eyelet of a steel plate, making it of the
fineness required, and, with the same movement, winds it round and
round its collar.

Even so with the Epeira's work. The Spider's front tarsi are the motor;
the revolving spool is the captured insect; the steel eyelet is the
aperture of the spinnerets. To bind the subject with precision and
dispatch nothing could be better than this inexpensive and highly
effective method.

Less frequently, a second process is employed. With a quick movement,
the Spider herself turns round about the motionless insect, crossing
the web first at the top and then at the bottom and gradually placing
the fastenings of her line. The great elasticity of the lime-threads
allows the Epeira to fling herself time after time right into the web
and to pass through it without damaging the net.

Let us now suppose the case of some dangerous game: a Praying Mantis,
for instance, brandishing her lethal limbs, each hooked and fitted with
a double saw; an angry Hornet, darting her awful sting; a sturdy
Beetle, invincible under his horny armour. These are exceptional
morsels, hardly ever known to the Epeirae. Will they be accepted, if
supplied by my stratagems?

They are, but not without caution. The game is seen to be perilous of
approach and the Spider turns her back upon it instead of facing it;
she trains her rope-cannon upon it. Quickly the hind-legs draw from the
spinnerets something much better than single cords. The whole
silk-battery works at one and the same time, firing a regular volley of
ribbons and sheets, which a wide movement of the legs spreads fan-wise
and flings over the entangled prisoner. Guarding against sudden starts,
the Epeira casts her armfuls of bands on the front- and hind-parts,
over the legs and over the wings, here, there and everywhere,
extravagantly. The most fiery prey is promptly mastered under this
avalanche. In vain the Mantis tries to open her saw-toothed arm-guards;
in vain the Hornet makes play with her dagger; in vain the Beetle
stiffens his legs and arches his back: a fresh wave of threads swoops
down and paralyses every effort.

The ancient retiarius, when pitted against a powerful wild beast,
appeared in the arena with a rope-net folded over his left shoulder.
The animal made its spring. The man, with a sudden movement of his
right arm, cast the net after the manner of the fisherman; he covered
the beast and tangled it in the meshes. A thrust of the trident gave
the quietus to the vanquished foe.

The Epeira acts in like fashion, with this advantage, that she is able
to renew her armful of fetters. Should the first not suffice, a second
instantly follows and another and yet another, until the reserves of
silk become exhausted.

When all movement ceases under the snowy winding-sheet, the Spider goes
up to her bound prisoner. She has a better weapon than the bestiarius'
trident: she has her poison-fangs. She gnaws at the Locust, without
undue persistence, and then withdraws, leaving the torpid patient to
pine away.

These lavished, far-flung ribbons threaten to exhaust the factory; it
would be much more economical to resort to the method of the spool;
but, to turn the machine, the Spider would have to go up to it and work
it with her leg. This is too risky; and hence the continuous spray of
silk, at a safe distance. When all is used up, there is more to come.

Still, the Epeira seems concerned at this excessive outlay. When
circumstances permit, she gladly returns to the mechanism of the
revolving spool. I saw her practice this abrupt change of tactics on a
big Beetle, with a smooth, plump body, which lent itself admirably to
the rotary process. After depriving the beast of all power of movement,
she went up to it and turned her corpulent victim as she would have
done with a medium-sized Moth.

But with the Praying Mantis, sticking out her long legs and her
spreading wings, rotation is no longer feasible. Then, until the quarry
is thoroughly subdued, the spray of bandages goes on continuously, even
to the point of drying up the silk glands. A capture of this kind is
ruinous. It is true that, except when I interfered, I have never seen
the Spider tackle that formidable provender.

Be it feeble or strong, the game is now neatly trussed, by one of the
two methods. The next move never varies. The bound insect is bitten,
without persistency and without any wound that shows. The Spider next
retires and allows the bite to act, which it soon does. She then
returns.

If the victim be small, a Clothes-moth, for instance, it is consumed on
the spot, at the place where it was captured. But, for a prize of some
importance, on which she hopes to feast for many an hour, sometimes for
many a day, the Spider needs a sequestered dining-room, where there is
naught to fear from the stickiness of the network. Before going to it,
she first makes her prey turn in the converse direction to that of the
original rotation. Her object is to free the nearest spokes, which
supplied pivots for the machinery. They are essential factors which it
behoves her to keep intact, if need be by sacrificing a few cross-bars.

It is done; the twisted ends are put back into position. The
well-trussed game is at last removed from the web and fastened on
behind with a thread. The Spider then marches in front and the load is
trundled across the web and hoisted to the resting-floor, which is both
an inspection-post and a dining-hall. When the Spider is of a species
that shuns the light and possesses a telegraph-line, she mounts to her
daytime hiding-place along this line, with the game bumping against her
heels.

While she is refreshing herself, let us enquire into the effects of the
little bite previously administered to the silk-swathed captive. Does
the Spider kill the patient with a view to avoiding unseasonable jerks,
protests so disagreeable at dinner-time? Several reasons make me doubt
it. In the first place, the attack is so much veiled as to have all the
appearance of a mere kiss. Besides, it is made anywhere, at the first
spot that offers. The expert slayers employ methods of the highest
precision: they give a stab in the neck, or under the throat; they
wound the cervical nerve-centres, the seat of energy. The paralysers,
those accomplished anatomists, poison the motor nerve-centres, of which
they know the number and position. The Epeira possesses none of this
fearsome knowledge. She inserts her fangs at random, as the Bee does
her sting. She does not select one spot rather than another; she bites
indifferently at whatever comes within reach. This being so, her poison
would have to possess unparalleled virulence to produce a corpse-like
inertia no matter which the point attacked. I can scarcely believe in
instantaneous death resulting from the bite, especially in the case of
insects, with their highly-resistant organisms.

Besides, is it really a corpse that the Epeira wants, she who feeds on
blood much more than on flesh? It were to her advantage to suck a live
body, wherein the flow of the liquids, set in movement by the pulsation
of the dorsal vessel, that rudimentary heart of insects, must act more
freely than in a lifeless body, with its stagnant fluids. The game
which the Spider means to suck dry might very well not be dead. This is
easily ascertained.

I place some Locusts of different species on the webs in my menagerie,
one on this, another on that. The Spider comes rushing up, binds the
prey, nibbles at it gently and withdraws, waiting for the bite to take
effect. I then take the insect and carefully strip it of its silken
shroud. The Locust is not dead; far from it; one would even think that
he had suffered no harm. I examine the released prisoner through the
lens in vain; I can see no trace of a wound.

Can he be unscathed, in spite of the sort of kiss which I saw given to
him just now? You would be ready to say so, judging by the furious way
in which he kicks in my fingers. Nevertheless, when put on the ground,
he walks awkwardly, he seems reluctant to hop. Perhaps it is a
temporary trouble, caused by his terrible excitement in the web. It
looks as though it would soon pass.

I lodge my Locusts in cages, with a lettuce-leaf to console them for
their trials; but they will not be comforted. A day elapses, followed
by a second. Not one of them touches the leaf of salad; their appetite
has disappeared. Their movements become more uncertain, as though
hampered by irresistible torpor. On the second day they are dead,
everyone irrecoverably dead.

The Epeira, therefore, does not incontinently kill her prey with her
delicate bite; she poisons it so as to produce a gradual weakness,
which gives the blood-sucker ample time to drain her victim, without
the least risk, before the rigor mortis stops the flow of moisture.

The meal lasts quite twenty-four hours, if the joint be large; and to
the very end the butchered insect retains a remnant of life, a
favourable condition for the exhausting of the juices. Once again, we
see a skilful method of slaughter, very different from the tactics in
use among the expert paralysers or slayers. Here there is no display of
anatomical science. Unacquainted with the patient's structure, the
Spider stabs at random. The virulence of the poison does the rest.

There are, however, some very few cases in which the bite is speedily
mortal. My notes speak of an Angular Epeira grappling with the largest
Dragon-fly in my district (Aeshna grandis, Lin.) I myself had entangled
in the web this head of big game, which is not often captured by the
Epeirae. The net shakes violently, seems bound to break its moorings.
The Spider rushes from her leafy villa, runs boldly up to the giantess,
flings a single bundle of ropes at her and, without further
precautions, grips her with her legs, tries to subdue her and then digs
her fangs into the Dragon-fly's back. The bite is prolonged in such a
way as to astonish me. This is not the perfunctory kiss with which I am
already familiar; it is a deep, determined wound. After striking her
blow, the Spider retires to a certain distance and waits for her poison
to take effect.

I at once remove the Dragon-fly. She is dead, really and truly dead.
Laid upon my table and left alone for twenty-four hours, she makes not
the slightest movement. A prick of which my lens cannot see the marks,
so sharp-pointed are the Epeira's weapons, was enough, with a little
insistence, to kill the powerful animal. Proportionately, the
Rattlesnake, the Horned Viper, the Trigonocephalus and other ill-famed
serpents produce less paralysing effects upon their victims.

And these Epeirae, so terrible to insects, I am able to handle without
any fear. My skin does not suit them. If I persuaded them to bite me,
what would happen to me? Hardly anything. We have more cause to dread
the sting of a nettle than the dagger which is fatal to Dragon-flies.
The same virus acts differently upon this organism and that, is
formidable here and quite mild there. What kills the insect may easily
be harmless to us. Let us not, however, generalize too far. The
Narbonne Lycosa, that other enthusiastic insect-huntress, would make us
pay dearly if we attempted to take liberties with her.

It is not uninteresting to watch the Epeira at dinner. I light upon
one, the Banded Epeira, at the moment, about three o'clock in the
afternoon, when she has captured a Locust. Planted in the centre of the
web, on her resting-floor, she attacks the venison at the joint of a
haunch. There is no movement, not even of the mouth-parts, so far as I
am able to discover. The mouth lingers, close-applied, at the point
originally bitten. There are no intermittent mouthfuls, with the
mandibles moving backwards and forwards. It is a sort of continuous
kiss.

I visit my Epeira at intervals. The mouth does not change its place. I
visit her for the last time at nine o'clock in the evening. Matters
stand exactly as they did: after six hours' consumption, the mouth is
still sucking at the lower end of the right haunch. The fluid contents
of the victim are transferred to the ogress's belly, I know not how.

Next morning, the Spider is still at table. I take away her dish.
Naught remains of the Locust but his skin, hardly altered in shape, but
utterly drained and perforated in several places. The method,
therefore, was changed during the night. To extract the non-fluent
residue, the viscera and muscles, the stiff cuticle had to be tapped
here, there and elsewhere, after which the tattered husk, placed bodily
in the press of the mandibles, would have been chewed, re-chewed and
finally reduced to a pill, which the sated Spider throws up. This would
have been the end of the victim, had I not taken it away before the
time.

Whether she wound or kill, the Epeira bites her captive somewhere or
other, no matter where. This is an excellent method on her part,
because of the variety of the game that comes her way. I see her
accepting with equal readiness whatever chance may send her:
Butterflies and Dragon-flies, Flies and Wasps, small Dung-beetles and
Locusts. If I offer her a Mantis, a Bumble-bee, an Anoxia--the
equivalent of the common Cockchafer--and other dishes probably unknown
to her race, she accepts all and any, large and small, thin-skinned and
horny-skinned, that which goes afoot and that which takes winged
flight. She is omnivorous, she preys on everything, down to her own
kind, should the occasion offer.

Had she to operate according to individual structure, she would need an
anatomical dictionary; and instinct is essentially unfamiliar with
generalities: its knowledge is always confined to limited points. The
Cerceres know their Weevils and their Buprestis-beetles absolutely; the
Sphex their Grasshoppers, their Crickets and their Locusts; the Scoliae
their Cetonia- and Oryctes-grubs. (The Scolia is a Digger-wasp, like
the Cerceris and the Sphex, and feeds her larvae on the grubs of the
Cetonia, or Rose-chafer, and the Oryctes, or
Rhinoceros-beetle.--Translator's Note.) Even so the other paralysers.
Each has her own victim and knows nothing of any of the others.

The same exclusive tastes prevail among the slayers. Let us remember,
in this connection, Philanthus apivorus and, especially, the Thomisus,
the comely Spider who cuts Bees' throats. They understand the fatal
blow, either in the neck or under the chin, a thing which the Epeira
does not understand; but, just because of this talent, they are
specialists. Their province is the Domestic Bee.

Animals are a little like ourselves: they excel in an art only on
condition of specializing in it. The Epeira, who, being omnivorous, is
obliged to generalize, abandons scientific methods and makes up for
this by distilling a poison capable of producing torpor and even death,
no matter what the point attacked.

Recognizing the large variety of game, we wonder how the Epeira manages
not to hesitate amid those many diverse forms, how, for instance, she
passes from the Locust to the Butterfly, so different in appearance. To
attribute to her as a guide an extensive zoological knowledge were
wildly in excess of what we may reasonably expect of her poor
intelligence. The thing moves, therefore it is worth catching: this
formula seems to sum up the Spider's wisdom.

THE TELEGRAPH-WIRE.

Of the six Garden Spiders that form the object of my observations, two
only, the Banded and the Silky Epeira, remain constantly in their webs,
even under the blinding rays of a fierce sun. The others, as a rule, do
not show themselves until nightfall. At some distance from the net they
have a rough-and-ready retreat in the brambles, an ambush made of a few
leaves held together by stretched threads. It is here that, for the
most part, they remain in the daytime, motionless and sunk in
meditation.

But the shrill light that vexes them is the joy of the fields. At such
times the Locust hops more nimbly than ever, more gaily skims the
Dragon-fly. Besides, the limy web, despite the rents suffered during
the night, is still in serviceable condition. If some giddy-pate allow
himself to be caught, will the Spider, at the distance whereto she has
retired, be unable to take advantage of the windfall? Never fear. She
arrives in a flash. How is she apprised? Let us explain the matter.

The alarm is given by the vibration of the web, much more than by the
sight of the captured object. A very simple experiment will prove this.
I lay upon a Banded Epeira's lime-threads a Locust that second
asphyxiated with carbon disulphide. The carcass is placed in front, or
behind, or at either side of the Spider, who sits moveless in the
centre of the net. If the test is to be applied to a species with a
daytime hiding-place amid the foliage, the dead Locust is laid on the
web, more or less near the centre, no matter how.

In both cases, nothing happens at first. The Epeira remains in her
motionless attitude, even when the morsel is at a short distance in
front of her. She is indifferent to the presence of the game, does not
seem to perceive it, so much so that she ends by wearing out my
patience. Then, with a long straw, which enables me to conceal myself
slightly, I set the dead insect trembling.

That is quite enough. The Banded Epeira and the Silky Epeira hasten to
the central floor; the others come down from the branch; all go to the
Locust, swathe him with tape, treat him, in short, as they would treat
a live prey captured under normal conditions. It took the shaking of
the web to decide them to attack.

Perhaps the grey colour of the Locust is not sufficiently conspicuous
to attract attention by itself. Then let us try red, the brightest
colour to our retina and probably also to the Spiders'. None of the
game hunted by the Epeirae being clad in scarlet, I make a small bundle
out of red wool, a bait of the size of a Locust. I glue it to the web.

My stratagem succeeds. As long as the parcel is stationary, the Spider
is not roused; but, the moment it trembles, stirred by my straw, she
runs up eagerly.

There are silly ones who just touch the thing with their legs and,
without further enquiries, swathe it in silk after the manner of the
usual game. They even go so far as to dig their fangs into the bait,
following the rule of the preliminary poisoning. Then and then only the
mistake is recognized and the tricked Spider retires and does not come
back, unless it be long afterwards, when she flings the lumbersome
object out of the web.

There are also clever ones. Like the others, these hasten to the
red-woollen lure, which my straw insidiously keeps moving; they come
from their tent among the leaves as readily as from the centre of the
web; they explore it with their palpi and their legs; but, soon
perceiving that the thing is valueless, they are careful not to spend
their silk on useless bonds. My quivering bait does not deceive them.
It is flung out after a brief inspection.

Still, the clever ones, like the silly ones, run even from a distance,
from their leafy ambush. How do they know? Certainly not by sight.
Before recognizing their mistake, they have to hold the object between
their legs and even to nibble at it a little. They are extremely
short-sighted. At a hand's-breadth's distance, the lifeless prey,
unable to shake the web, remains unperceived. Besides, in many cases,
the hunting takes place in the dense darkness of the night, when sight,
even if it were good, would not avail.

If the eyes are insufficient guides, even close at hand, how will it be
when the prey has to be spied from afar? In that case, an intelligence
apparatus for long-distance work becomes indispensable. We have no
difficulty in detecting the apparatus.

Let us look attentively behind the web of any Epeira with a daytime
hiding-place: we shall see a thread that starts from the centre of the
network, ascends in a slanting line outside the plane of the web and
ends at the ambush where the Spider lurks all day. Except at the
central point, there is no connection between this thread and the rest
of the work, no interweaving with the scaffolding-threads. Free of
impediment, the line runs straight from the centre of the net to the
ambush-tent. Its length averages twenty-two inches. The Angular Epeira,
settled high up in the trees, has shown me some as long as eight or
nine feet.

There is no doubt that this slanting line is a foot-bridge which allows
the Spider to repair hurriedly to the web, when summoned by urgent
business, and then, when her round is finished, to return to her hut.
In fact, it is the road which I see her follow, in going and coming.
But is that all? No; for, if the Epeira had no aim in view but a means
of rapid transit between her tent and the net, the foot-bridge would be
fastened to the upper edge of the web. The journey would be shorter and
the slope less steep.

Why, moreover, does this line always start in the centre of the sticky
network and nowhere else? Because that is the point where the spokes
meet and, therefore, the common centre of vibration. Anything that
moves upon the web sets it shaking. All then that is needed is a thread
issuing from this central point to convey to a distance the news of a
prey struggling in some part or other of the net. The slanting cord,
extending outside the plane of the web, is more than a foot-bridge: it
is, above all, a signalling-apparatus, a telegraph-wire.

Let us try experiment. I place a Locust on the network. Caught in the
sticky toils, he plunges about. Forthwith, the Spider issues
impetuously from her hut, comes down the foot-bridge, makes a rush for
the Locust, wraps him up and operates on him according to rule. Soon
after, she hoists him, fastened by a line to her spinneret, and drags
him to her hiding-place, where a long banquet will be held. So far,
nothing new: things happen as usual.

I leave the Spider to mind her own affairs for some days before I
interfere with her. I again propose to give her a Locust; but this time
I first cut the signalling-thread with a touch of the scissors, without
shaking any part of the edifice. The game is then laid on the web.
Complete success: the entangled insect struggles, sets the net
quivering; the Spider, on her side, does not stir, as though heedless
of events.

The idea might occur to one that, in this business, the Epeira stays
motionless in her cabin since she is prevented from hurrying down,
because the foot-bridge is broken. Let us undeceive ourselves: for one
road open to her there are a hundred, all ready to bring her to the
place where her presence is now required. The network is fastened to
the branches by a host of lines, all of them very easy to cross. Well,
the Epeira embarks upon none of them, but remains moveless and
self-absorbed.

Why? Because her telegraph, being out of order, no longer tells her of
the shaking of the web. The captured prey is too far off for her to see
it; she is all unwitting. A good hour passes, with the Locust still
kicking, the Spider impassive, myself watching. Nevertheless, in the
end, the Epeira wakes up: no longer feeling the signalling-thread,
broken by my scissors, as taut as usual under her legs, she comes to
look into the state of things. The web is reached, without the least
difficulty, by one of the lines of the framework, the first that
offers. The Locust is then perceived and forthwith enswathed, after
which the signalling-thread is remade, taking the place of the one
which I have broken. Along this road the Spider goes home, dragging her
prey behind her.

My neighbour, the mighty Angular Epeira, with her telegraph-wire nine
feet long, has even better things in store for me. One morning I find
her web, which is now deserted, almost intact, a proof that the night's
hunting has not been good. The animal must be hungry. With a piece of
game for a bait, I hope to bring her down from her lofty retreat.

I entangle in the web a rare morsel, a Dragon-fly, who struggles
desperately and sets the whole net a-shaking. The other, up above,
leaves her lurking-place amid the cypress-foliage, strides swiftly down
along her telegraph-wire, comes to the Dragon-fly, trusses her and at
once climbs home again by the same road, with her prize dangling at her
heels by a thread. The final sacrifice will take place in the quiet of
the leafy sanctuary.

A few days later I renew my experiment under the same conditions, but,
this time, I first cut the signalling-thread. In vain I select a large
Dragon-fly, a very restless prisoner; in vain I exert my patience: the
Spider does not come down all day. Her telegraph being broken, she
receives no notice of what is happening nine feet below. The entangled
morsel remains where it lies, not despised, but unknown. At nightfall
the Epeira leaves her cabin, passes over the ruins of her web, finds
the Dragon-fly and eats him on the spot, after which the net is
renewed.

The Epeirae, who occupy a distant retreat by day, cannot do without a
private wire that keeps them in permanent communication with the
deserted web. All of them have one, in point of fact, but only when age
comes, age prone to rest and to long slumbers. In their youth, the
Epeirae, who are then very wide awake, know nothing of the art of
telegraphy. Besides, their web, a short-lived work whereof hardly a
trace remains on the morrow, does not allow of this kind of industry.
It is no use going to the expense of a signalling-apparatus for a
ruined snare wherein nothing can now be caught. Only the old Spiders,
meditating or dozing in their green tent, are warned from afar, by
telegraph, of what takes place on the web.

To save herself from keeping a close watch that would degenerate into
drudgery and to remain alive to events even when resting, with her back
turned on the net, the ambushed Spider always has her foot upon the
telegraph-wire. Of my observations on this subject, let me relate the
following, which will be sufficient for our purpose.

An Angular Epeira, with a remarkably fine belly, has spun her web
between two laurustine-shrubs, covering a width of nearly a yard. The
sun beats upon the snare, which is abandoned long before dawn. The
Spider is in her day manor, a resort easily discovered by following the
telegraph-wire. It is a vaulted chamber of dead leaves, joined together
with a few bits of silk. The refuge is deep: the Spider disappears in
it entirely, all but her rounded hind-quarters, which bar the entrance
to her donjon.

With her front half plunged into the back of her hut, the Epeira
certainly cannot see her web. Even if she had good sight, instead of
being purblind, her position could not possibly allow her to keep the
prey in view. Does she give up hunting during this period of bright
sunlight? Not at all. Look again.

Wonderful! One of her hind-legs is stretched outside the leafy cabin;
and the signalling-thread ends just at the tip of that leg. Whoso has
not seen the Epeira in this attitude, with her hand, so to speak, on
the telegraph-receiver, knows nothing of one of the most curious
instances of animal cleverness. Let any game appear upon the scene; and
the slumberer, forthwith aroused by means of the leg receiving the
vibrations, hastens up. A Locust whom I myself lay on the web procures
her this agreeable shock and what follows. If she is satisfied with her
bag, I am still more satisfied with what I have learnt.

One word more. The web is often shaken by the wind. The different parts
of the framework, tossed and teased by the eddying air-currents, cannot
fail to transmit their vibration to the signalling-thread.
Nevertheless, the Spider does not quit her hut and remains indifferent
to the commotion prevailing in the net. Her line, therefore, is
something better than a bell-rope that pulls and communicates the
impulse given: it is a telephone capable, like our own, of transmitting
infinitesimal waves of sound. Clutching her telephone-wire with a toe,
the Spider listens with her leg; she perceives the innermost
vibrations; she distinguishes between the vibration proceeding from a
prisoner and the mere shaking caused by the wind.





Next: The Eumenes

Previous: The Spiders



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