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The Harmas




This is what I wished for, hoc erat in votis: a bit of land, oh, not so
very large, but fenced in, to avoid the drawbacks of a public way; an
abandoned, barren, sun-scorched bit of land, favoured by thistles and
by Wasps and Bees. Here, without fear of being troubled by the
passers-by, I could consult the Ammophila and the Sphex (two species of
Digger-or Hunting-wasps.--Translator's Note.) and engage in that
difficult conversation whose questions and answers have experiment for
their language; here, without distant expeditions that take up my time,
without tiring rambles that strain my nerves, I could contrive my plans
of attack, lay my ambushes and watch their effects at every hour of the
day. Hoc erat in votis. Yes, this was my wish, my dream, always
cherished, always vanishing into the mists of the future.

And it is no easy matter to acquire a laboratory in the open fields,
when harassed by a terrible anxiety about one's daily bread. For forty
years have I fought, with steadfast courage, against the paltry plagues
of life; and the long-wished-for laboratory has come at last. What it
has cost me in perseverance and relentless work I will not try to say.
It has come; and, with it--a more serious condition--perhaps a little
leisure. I say perhaps, for my leg is still hampered with a few links
of the convict's chain.

The wish is realized. It is a little late, O! my pretty insects! I
greatly fear that the peach is offered to me when I am beginning to
have no teeth wherewith to eat it. Yes, it is a little late: the wide
horizons of the outset have shrunk into a low and stifling canopy, more
and more straitened day by day. Regretting nothing in the past, save
those whom I have lost; regretting nothing, not even my first youth;
hoping nothing either, I have reached the point at which, worn out by
the experience of things, we ask ourselves if life be worth the living.

Amid the ruins that surround me, one strip of wall remains standing,
immovable upon its solid base: my passion for scientific truth. Is that
enough, O! my busy insects, to enable me to add yet a few seemly pages
to your history? Will my strength not cheat my good intentions? Why,
indeed, did I forsake you so long?

Friends have reproached me for it. Ah, tell them, tell those friends,
who are yours as well as mine, tell them that it was not forgetfulness
on my part, not weariness, nor neglect: I thought of you; I was
convinced that the Cerceris' (A species of Digger-wasp.--Translator's
Note.) cave had more fair secrets to reveal to us, that the chase of
the Sphex held fresh surprises in store. But time failed me; I was
alone, deserted, struggling against misfortune. Before philosophizing,
one had to live. Tell them that, and they will pardon me.

Others have reproached me with my style, which has not the solemnity,
nay, better, the dryness of the schools. They fear lest a page that is
read without fatigue should not always be the expression of the truth.
Were I to take their word for it, we are profound only on condition of
being obscure. Come here, one and all of you--you, the sting-bearers,
and you, the wing-cased armour-clads--take up my defence and bear
witness in my favour. Tell of the intimate terms on which I live with
you, of the patience with which I observe you, of the care with which I
record your actions. Your evidence is unanimous: yes, my pages, though
they bristle not with hollow formulas nor learned smatterings, are the
exact narrative of facts observed, neither more nor less; and whoso
cares to question you in his turn will obtain the same replies.

And then, my dear insects, if you cannot convince those good people,
because you do not carry the weight of tedium, I, in my turn, will say
to them:

"You rip up the animal and I study it alive; you turn it into an object
of horror and pity, whereas I cause it to be loved; you labour in a
torture-chamber and dissecting-room, I make my observations under the
blue sky, to the song of the Cicadae (The Cicada Cigale, an insect akin
to the Grasshopper and found more particularly in the south of
France.--Translator's Note.); you subject cell and protoplasm to
chemical tests, I study instinct in its loftiest manifestations; you
pry into death, I pry into life. And why should I not complete my
thought: the boars have muddied the clear stream; natural history,
youth's glorious study, has, by dint of cellular improvements, become a
hateful and repulsive thing. Well, if I write for men of learning, for
philosophers, who, one day, will try to some extent to unravel the
tough problem of instinct, I write also, I write above all things, for
the young, I want to make them love the natural history which you make
them hate; and that is why, while keeping strictly to the domain of
truth, I avoid your scientific prose, which too often, alas, seems
borrowed from some Iroquois idiom!"

But this is not my business for the moment: I want to speak of the bit
of land long cherished in my plans to form a laboratory of living
entomology, the bit of land which I have at last obtained in the
solitude of a little village. It is a "harmas," the name given, in this
district (The country round Serignan, in Provence.--Translator's
Note.), to an untilled, pebbly expanse abandoned to the vegetation of
the thyme. It is too poor to repay the work of the plough; but the
Sheep passes there in spring, when it has chanced to rain and a little
grass shoots up.

My harmas, however, because of its modicum of red earth swamped by a
huge mass of stones, has received a rough first attempt at cultivation:
I am told that vines once grew here. And, in fact, when we dig the
ground before planting a few trees, we turn up, here and there, remains
of the precious stock, half carbonized by time. The three-pronged fork,
therefore, the only implement of husbandry that can penetrate such a
soil as this, has entered here; and I am sorry, for the primitive
vegetation has disappeared. No more thyme, no more lavender, no more
clumps of kermes-oak, the dwarf oak that forms forests across which we
step by lengthening our stride a little. As these plants, especially
the first two, might be of use to me by offering the Bees and Wasps a
spoil to forage, I am compelled to reinstate them in the ground whence
they were driven by the fork.

What abounds without my mediation is the invaders of any soil that is
first dug up and then left for a time to its own resources. We have, in
the first rank, the couch-grass, that execrable weed which three years
of stubborn warfare have not succeeded in exterminating. Next, in
respect of number, come the centauries, grim-looking one and all,
bristling with prickles or starry halberds. They are the
yellow-flowered centaury, the mountain centaury, the star-thistle and
the rough centaury: the first predominates. Here and there, amid their
inextricable confusion, stands, like a chandelier with spreading orange
flowers for lights, the fierce Spanish oyster-plant, whose spikes are
strong as nails. Above it towers the Illyrian cotton-thistle, whose
straight and solitary stalk soars to a height of three to six feet and
ends in large pink tufts. Its armour hardly yields before that of the
oyster-plant. Nor must we forget the lesser thistle-tribe, with, first
of all, the prickly or "cruel" thistle, which is so well armed that the
plant-collector knows not where to grasp it; next, the spear-thistle,
with its ample foliage, ending each of its veins with a spear-head;
lastly, the black knap-weed, which gathers itself into a spiky knot. In
among these, in long lines armed with hooks, the shoots of the blue
dewberry creep along the ground. To visit the prickly thicket when the
Wasp goes foraging, you must wear boots that come to mid-leg or else
resign yourself to a smarting in the calves. As long as the ground
retains a few remnants of the vernal rains, this rude vegetation does
not lack a certain charm, when the pyramids of the oyster-plant and the
slender branches of the cotton-thistle rise above the wide carpet
formed by the yellow-flowered centaury's saffron heads; but let the
droughts of summer come and we see but a desolate waste, which the
flame of a match would set ablaze from one end to the other. Such is,
or rather was, when I took possession of it, the Eden of bliss where I
mean to live henceforth alone with the insect. Forty years of desperate
struggle have won it for me.

Eden, I said; and, from the point of view that interests me, the
expression is not out of place. This cursed ground, which no one would
have had at a gift to sow with a pinch of turnip-seed, is an earthly
paradise for the Bees and the Wasps. Its mighty growth of thistles and
centauries draws them all to me from everywhere around. Never, in my
insect-hunting memories, have I seen so large a population at a single
spot; all the trades have made it their rallying-point. Here come
hunters of every kind of game, builders in clay, weavers of cotton
goods, collectors of pieces cut from a leaf or the petals of a flower,
architects in paste-board, plasterers mixing mortar, carpenters boring
wood, miners digging underground galleries, workers handling
goldbeater's skin and many more.

Who is this one? An Anthidium. (A Cotton-bee.--Translator's Note.) She
scrapes the cobwebby stalk of the yellow-flowered centaury and gathers
a ball of wadding which she carries off proudly in the tips of her
mandibles. She will turn it, under ground, into cotton-felt satchels to
hold the store of honey and the egg. And these others, so eager for
plunder? They are Megachiles (Leaf-cutting Bees.--Translator's Note.),
carrying under their bellies their black, white, or blood-red
reaping-brushes. They will leave the thistles to visit the neighbouring
shrubs and there cut from the leaves oval pieces which will be made
into a fit receptacle to contain the harvest. And these, clad in black
velvet? They are Chalicodomae (Mason-bees.--Translator's Note.), who
work with cement and gravel. We could easily find their masonry on the
stones in the harmas. And these, noisily buzzing with a sudden flight?
They are the Anthophorae (a species of Wild Bees.--Translator's Note.),
who live in the old walls and the sunny banks of the neighbourhood.

Now come the Osmiae. One stacks her cells in the spiral staircase of an
empty snail-shell; another, attacking the pith of a dry bit of bramble,
obtains for her grubs a cylindrical lodging and divides it into floors
by means of partition-walls; a third employs the natural channel of a
cut reed; a fourth is a rent-free tenant of the vacant galleries of
some Mason-bee. Here are the Macrocerae and the Eucerae, whose males
are proudly horned; the Dasypodae, who carry an ample brush of bristles
on their hind-legs for a reaping implement; the Andrenae, so manyfold
in species; the slender-bellied Halicti. (Osmiae, Macrocerae, Eucerae,
Dasypodae, Andrenae, and Halicti are all different species of Wild
Bees.--Translator's Note.) I omit a host of others. If I tried to
continue this record of the guests of my thistles, it would muster
almost the whole of the honey-yielding tribe. A learned entomologist of
Bordeaux, Professor Perez, to whom I submit the naming of my prizes,
once asked me if I had any special means of hunting, to send him so
many rarities and even novelties. I am not at all an experienced and
still less a zealous hunter, for the insect interests me much more when
engaged in its work than when stuck on a pin in a cabinet. The whole
secret of my hunting is reduced to my dense nursery of thistles and
centauries.

By a most fortunate chance, with this populous family of
honey-gatherers was allied the whole hunting tribe. The builders' men
had distributed here and there, in the harmas, great mounds of sand and
heaps of stones, with a view of running up some surrounding walls. The
work dragged on slowly; and the materials found occupants from the
first year. The Mason-bees had chosen the interstices between the
stones as a dormitory where to pass the night in serried groups. The
powerful Eyed Lizard, who, when close-pressed, attacks wide-mouthed
both man and dog, had selected a cave wherein to lie in wait for the
passing Scarab (A Dung-beetle known also as the Sacred
Beetle.--Translator's Note.); the Black-eared Chat, garbed like a
Dominican, white-frocked with black wings, sat on the top stone,
singing his short rustic lay: his nest, with its sky-blue eggs, must be
somewhere in the heap. The little Dominican disappeared with the loads
of stones. I regret him: he would have been a charming neighbour. The
Eyed Lizard I do not regret at all.

The sand sheltered a different colony. Here, the Bembeces (A species of
Digger-wasps.--Translator's Note.) were sweeping the threshold of their
burrows, flinging a curve of dust behind them; the Languedocian Sphex
was dragging her Ephippigera (A species of Green
Grasshopper--Translator's Note.) by the antennae; a Stizus (A species
of Hunting-wasp.--Translator's Note.) was storing her preserves of
Cicadellae. (Froghoppers--Translator's Note.) To my sorrow, the masons
ended by evicting the sporting tribe; but, should I ever wish to recall
it, I have but to renew the mounds of sand: they will soon all be
there.

Hunters that have not disappeared, their homes being different, are the
Ammophilae, whom I see fluttering, one in spring, the others in autumn,
along the garden-walks and over the lawns, in search of a caterpillar;
the Pompili (The Pompilus is a species of Hunting-wasp known also as
the Ringed Calicurgus--Translator's Note.), who travel alertly, beating
their wings and rummaging in every corner in quest of a Spider. The
largest of them waylays the Narbonne Lycosa (Known also as the
Black-bellied Tarantula--Translator's Note.), whose burrow is not
infrequent in the harmas. This burrow is a vertical well, with a curb
of fescue-grass intertwined with silk. You can see the eyes of the
mighty Spider gleam at the bottom of the den like little diamonds, an
object of terror to most. What a prey and what dangerous hunting for
the Pompilus! And here, on a hot summer afternoon, is the Amazon-ant,
who leaves her barrack-rooms in long battalions and marches far afield
to hunt for slaves. We will follow her in her raids when we find time.
Here again, around a heap of grasses turned to mould, are Scoliae
(Large Hunting-wasps--Translator's Note.) an inch and a half long, who
fly gracefully and dive into the heap, attracted by a rich prey, the
grubs of Lamellicorns, Oryctes, and Cetoniae. (Different species of
Beetles. The Cetonia is the Rose-chafer--Translator's Note.)

What subjects for study! And there are more to come. The house was as
utterly deserted as the ground. When man was gone and peace assured,
the animal hastily seized on everything. The Warbler took up his abode
in the lilac-shrubs; the Greenfinch settled in the thick shelter of the
cypresses; the Sparrow carted rags and straw under every slate; the
Serin-finch, whose downy nest is no bigger than half an apricot, came
and chirped in the plane-tree tops; the Scops made a habit of uttering
his monotonous, piping note here, of an evening; the bird of Pallas
Athene, the Owl, came hurrying along to hoot and hiss.

In front of the house is a large pond, fed by the aqueduct that
supplies the village pumps with water. Here, from half a mile and more
around, come the Frogs and Toads in the lovers' season. The Natterjack,
sometimes as large as a plate, with a narrow stripe of yellow down his
back, makes his appointments here to take his bath; when the evening
twilight falls, we see hopping along the edge the Midwife Toad, the
male, who carries a cluster of eggs, the size of peppercorns, wrapped
round his hind-legs: the genial paterfamilias has brought his precious
packet from afar, to leave it in the water and afterwards retire under
some flat stone, whence he will emit a sound like a tinkling bell.
Lastly, when not croaking amid the foliage, the Tree-frogs indulge in
the most graceful dives. And so, in May, as soon as it is dark, the
pond becomes a deafening orchestra: it is impossible to talk at table,
impossible to sleep. We had to remedy this by means perhaps a little
too rigorous. What could we do? He who tries to sleep and cannot needs
become ruthless.

Bolder still, the Wasp has taken possession of the dwelling-house. On
my door-sill, in a soil of rubbish, nestles the White-banded Sphex:
when I go indoors, I must be careful not to damage her burrows, not to
tread upon the miner absorbed in her work. It is quite a quarter of a
century since I last saw the saucy Cricket-hunter. When I made her
acquaintance, I used to visit her at a few miles' distance: each time,
it meant an expedition under the blazing August sun. To-day I find her
at my door; we are intimate neighbours. The embrasure of the closed
window provides an apartment of a mild temperature for the Pelopaeus.
(A species of Mason-wasp--Translator's Note.) The earth-built nest is
fixed against the freestone wall. To enter her home, the
Spider-huntress uses a little hole left open by accident in the
shutters. On the mouldings of the Venetian blinds, a few stray
Mason-bees build their group of cells; inside the outer shutters, left
ajar, a Eumenes (Another Mason-wasp--Translator's Note.) constructs her
little earthen dome, surmounted by a short, bell-mouthed neck. The
Common Wasp and the Polistes (A Wasp that builds her nest in
trees--Translator's Note.) are my dinner-guests: they visit my table to
see if the grapes served are as ripe as they look.

Here surely--and the list is far from complete--is a company both
numerous and select, whose conversation will not fail to charm my
solitude, if I succeed in drawing it out, my dear beasts of former
days, my old friends, and others, more recent acquaintances, all are
here, hunting, foraging, building in close proximity. Besides, should
we wish to vary the scene of observation, the mountain (Mont Ventoux,
an outlying summit of the Alps, 6,270 feet high.--Translator's Note.)
is but a few hundred steps away, with its tangle of arbutus, rock-roses
and arborescent heather; with its sandy spaces dear to the Bembeces;
with its marly slopes exploited by different Wasps and Bees. And that
is why, foreseeing these riches, I have abandoned the town for the
village and come to Serignan to weed my turnips and water my lettuces.

Laboratories are being founded at great expense, on our Atlantic and
Mediterranean coasts, where people cut up small sea-animals, of but
meagre interest to us; they spend a fortune on powerful microscopes,
delicate dissecting-instruments, engines of capture, boats,
fishing-crews, aquariums, to find out how the yolk of an Annelid's (A
red-blooded Worm.--Translator's Note.) egg is constructed, a question
whereof I have never yet been able to grasp the full importance; and
they scorn the little land-animal, which lives in constant touch with
us, which provides universal psychology with documents of inestimable
value, which too often threatens the public wealth by destroying our
crops. When shall we have an entomological laboratory for the study not
of the dead insect, steeped in alcohol, but of the living insect; a
laboratory having for its object the instinct, the habits, the manner
of living, the work, the struggles, the propagation of that little
world with which agriculture and philosophy have most seriously to
reckon? To know thoroughly the history of the destroyer of our vines
might perhaps be more important than to know how this or that
nerve-fibre of a Cirriped ends (Cirripeds are sea-animals with
hair-like legs, including the Barnacles and Acorn-shells.--Translator's
Note.); to establish by experiment the line of demarcation between
intellect and instinct; to prove, by comparing facts in the zoological
progression, whether human reason be an irreducible faculty or not: all
this ought surely to take precedence of the number of joints in a
Crustacean's antenna. These enormous questions would need an army of
workers; and we have not one. The fashion is all for the Mollusc and

the Zoophyte. (Zoophytes are plant-like sea-animals, including
Star-fishes, Jelly-fishes, Sea-anemones, and Sponges.--Translator's
Note.) The depths of the sea are explored with many drag-nets; the soil
which we tread is consistently disregarded. While waiting for the
fashion to change, I open my harmas laboratory of living entomology;
and this laboratory shall not cost the ratepayers one farthing.





Next: The Green Grasshopper

Previous: Instincts Of Bees



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